9781457650505: the compact bedford introduction to literature: reading, thinking, and writing

The Compact Bedford Introduction to lớn Literature is a bestseller for a reason: It brings literature to lớn life for students, helping khổng lồ make them lifelong readers, better writers, and more critical thinkers in any path they choose. Classic works drawn from many periods & cultures appear alongside a strong showing from today’s authors. There is plenty of tư vấn for students, with critical reading và writing tư vấn, helpful sample cđại bại readings, writing assignments, & student papers in up-to-date MLA style.

And, because everyone teaches và learns differently, there are many options for working with the literature, including case studies on individual works & themes that everyone can relate to. In-depth chapters on major authors including Flannery O’Connor và Nathaniel Hawthorne take students deeper into lớn their work, và three chapters on the fiction of Dagoberto lớn Gilb and the poetry of Billy Collins and Julia Alvarez—created in collaboration with the authors themselves—are one more way that the anthology showcases literature as a living, changing art size.Achieve sầu with Meyer, Compact Bedford Introduction lớn Literature, puts student reading, writing, và revision at the core of your course, with interactive sầu close reading modules, reading comprehension quizzes for the selections in the book, videos of professional writers and students discussing literary works, and a dedicated composition space that guides students through draft, đánh giá, source kiểm tra, reflection, và revision. For details, visit macmillanlearning.com/college/us/englishdigital.

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Michael Meyer has taught writing và literature courses for more than thirty years—since 1981 at the University of Connecticut và before that at the University of North Carolimãng cầu at Charlotte và the College of William và Mary. In addition to lớn being an experienced teacher, Meyer is a highly regarded literary scholar. His scholarly articles have sầu appeared in distinguished journals such as American Literature, Studies in the American Renaissance, and Virginia Quarterly đánh giá. An internationally recognized authority on Henry David Thoreau, Meyer is a former president of the Thoreau Society và coauthor (with Walter Harding) of The New Thoreau Handbook, a standard reference source. The American Studies Association awarded his first book, Several More Lives to Live: Thoreau’s Political Reputation in America, the Ralph Henry Gabriel Prize. . He is also the editor of Frederiông xã Douglass: The Narrative sầu and Selected Writings. He has lectured on a variety of American literary topics from Cambridge University to Peking University. His books for Bedford/St. Martin”s include The Bedford Introduction khổng lồ Literature; The Compact Bedford Introduction lớn Literature; Literature to lớn Go; Poetry: An Introduction; và Thinking và Writing about Literature.

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Table of Contents

ContentsResources for Reading & Writing about Literature Preface for Instructors Introduction The Nature of Literature Emily Dickinson, “A narrow Fellow in the Grass” The Value of Literature The Changing Literary Canon Fiction The Elements of Fiction 1. Reading Fiction Reading Fiction Responsively Kate Chopin, “The Story of an Hour” A Sample Cthảm bại Reading: Annotated Section of “The Story of an Hour”A Sample Paper: Differences in Responses lớn Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour” Explorations và Formulas A Comparison of Two Stories *Grace Paley, “Wants” *Judith Ortiz Cofer, “Volar” 2. Plot *T.C. Boyle, “The Hit Man” Alice Walker, “The Flowers” William Faulkner, “A Rose for Emily” PERSPECTIVE: William Faulkner, On “A Rose for Emily” A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of “A Rose for Emily” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Conflict in the Plot of William Faulkner’s “A Rose for Emily” Andre Dubus, “Killings” A.L. Bader, “Nothing Happens in Modern Short Stories” 3. Character *Tobias Wolff, “Powder” Jamaica Kincaid, “Girl” Xu Xi, “Famine” *James Baldwin, “Sonny’s Blues” 4. Setting Ernest Hemingway, “Soldier’s Home” PERSPECTIVE: Ernest Hemingway, “On What Every Writer Needs” *Ursula LeGuin, “The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas” *Charlotte Perkins Gilman, “The Yellow Wallpaper” 5. Point of View Third-Person và First-Person Narrators John Updike, “A và P” *Manuel Muñoz, “Zigzagger” Maggie Mitchell, “It Would Be Different If” 6. Symbolism *Louise Erdrich, “The Red Convertible” *Ralph Ellison, “King of the Bingo Game” *Cynthia Ozichồng, “The Shawl” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: On Cynthia Ozick’s “The Shawl” *Ann Beattie, “Janus” 7. Theme *Shirley Jackson, “The Lottery” Katherine Mansfield, “Miss Brill” *Zora Neale Hurston, “Sweat” 8. Style, Tone, & Irony Style Tone Irony Raymond Carver, “Popular Mechanics” PERSPECTIVE: John Barth, “On Minimamenu Fiction” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Minimalist Style of Raymond Carver’s “Popular Mechanics” Susan Minot, “Lust” *Jyên Shepard, “Reach for the Sky” Approaches khổng lồ Fiction 9. A Study of Nathaniel Hawthorne A Brief Biography & Introduction Nathaniel Hawthorne, *“The Minister’s Black Veil” “Young Goodman Brown” “The Birthmark” PERSPECTIVES Nathaniel Hawthorne, “On Solitude” “On the Power nguồn of the Writer’s Imagination” “On His Short Stories” Herman Melville, “On Nathaniel Hawthorne’s Tragic Vision” Gaylord Brewer, “The Joys of Secret Sin” 10. A Study of Flannery O’Connor A Brief Biography và Introduction Flannery O’Connor, “A Good Man is Hard khổng lồ Find” “Good Country People” “Revelation” PERSPECTIVES Flannery O’Connor, “On the Use of Exaggeration & Distortion” Josephine Hendin, “On O’Connor’s Refusal to ‘Do Pretty’” Claire Katz, “The Function of Violence in O’Connor’s Fiction” Edward Kessler, “On O’Connor’s Use of History” TIME Magazine, “On A Good Man is Hard to lớn Find & Other Stories” 11. A Cultural Case Study: James Joyce’s “Eveline” A Brief Biography and Introduction James Joyce, “Eveline” DOCUMENTS The Alliance Temperance Almanack, “On the Resources of Ireland” Bridget Burke, “A Letter trang chủ From an Irish Emigrant” — “A Plot Synopsis of The Bohemian Girl” 12. A Study of Dagoberkhổng lồ Gilb: The tác giả Reflects on Three Stories Introduction A Brief Biography Dagoberto Gilb, “How Books Bounce” (Introduction) Dagoberto lớn Gilb, “Love sầu in L.A.” (Story) Dagoberto Gilb, “On Writing ‘Love sầu in L.A.’” (Essay) Dagoberlớn Gilb, “Shout” (Story) Dagoberlớn Gilb, “On Writing ‘Shout’” (Essay) Dagoberto lớn Gilb, “Uncle Rock” (Story) Dagoberto Gilb, “On Writing ‘Uncle Rock’” (Essay) PERSPECTIVES Dagoberlớn Gilb, “On Physical Labor” “On Distortions of Mexican American Culture” “Michael Meyer Interviews Dagoberto Gilb” FACSIMILES: Dagoberto Gilb, Two Draft Manuscript Pages 13. Thematic Case Study: War và Its Aftermath Tlặng O’Brien, “How to Tell a True War Story” *Kurt Vonnegut, “Happy Birthday, 1951” *Edwidge Dantimèo, “The Missing Peace” 14. Thematic Case Study: Humor và Satire Annie Proulx, “55 Miles khổng lồ the Gas Pump” *George Saunders, “I Can Speak ™” Ron Hansen, “My Kid’s Dog” Mark Twain, “The Story of the Good Little Boy” 15. Thematic Case Study: Privacy *Oscar Wilde, “The Sphinx Without a Secret” *David Long, “Morphine” *ZZ Packer, “Drinking Coffee Elsewhere” *John Cheever, “The Enormous Radio” 16. Stories For Further Reading *Washington Irving, “Rip Van Winkle” *Jhumpage authority Lahiri, “Sexy” *Alecia McKenzie, “Private School” *Joyce Carol Oates, “Tick” Edgar Allan Poe, “The Cask of Amontillado” *Carol Shields, “Mrs. Turner Cutting the Grass” *John Edgar Wideman, “All Stories are True” Poetry The Elements of Poetry 17. Reading Poetry Reading Poetry Responsively Lisa Parker, “Snapping Beans” Robert Hayden, “Those Winter Sundays” John Updike, “Dog’s Death” The Pleasure of Words *Gregory Corso: “I am 25” Robert Francis, “Catch” A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Tossing Metaphors in Robert Francis’s “Catch” Philip Larkin, “A Study of Reading Habits” Robert Morgan, “Mountain Graveyard” e.e. Cummings, “l(a” Anonymous, “Western Wind” Regimãng cầu Barreca, “Nighttime Fires” Poetic Definitions of Poetry *Marianne Moore, “Poetry” Billy Collins, “Introduction khổng lồ Poetry” Ruth Forman, “Poetry Should Ride the Bus” *Charles Bukowski, “A Poem is a City” Recurrent Poetic Figures: Five Ways of Looking at Roses Robert Burns, “A Red, Red Rose” Edmund Waller, “Go, Lovely Rose” *William Blake, “The Siông chồng Rose” *Dorothy Parker, “One Perfect Rose” *H.D. (Hildomain authority Doolittle), “Sea Rose” Poems for Further Study Mary Oliver, “The Poet with His Face in His Hands” Jim Tilley, “The Big Questions” Alberlớn Ríos, “Seniors” Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “The Eagle” Edgar Allan Poe, “Sonnet – To Science” Cornelius Eady, “The Supremes” Encountering Poetry: Images of Poetry in Popular Culture Dorothy Parker, “Unfortunate Coincidence” (Poster) Carl Sandberg, “Window” (Photo) Roz Chast, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Crew” (Cartoon) Tyên ổn Taylor, “I Shake the Delicate Apparatus” (Photo) Eric Dunn & Mike Wigton, “National Poetry Slam” (Poster) Kevin Fleming, 560 (Photo) Ted Kooser, “American Life in Poetry” (Web Screen) Michael McFee, “Spitwads” (Poem in Newspaper) 18. Word Choice, Word Order, and Tone Word choice Diction Denotations & Connotations Randall Jarrell, “The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner” Word Order Tone Marilyn Nelson, “How I Discovered Poetry” Katharyn Howd Machan, “Hazel Tells LaVerne” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Tone in Katharyn Howd Machan’s “Hazel Tells Laverne” Martin Espada, “Latin Night at the Pawnshop” *Jonathan Swift, “The Character of Sir Robert Walpole” Diction and Tone in Four Love sầu Poems Robert Herriông chồng, “To the Virgins, To Make Much of Time” Andrew Marvell, “To His Coy Mistress” Ann Lauinger, “Marvell Noir” Poems for Further Study Walternative text Whitman, “The Dalliance of the Eagles” *Kwame Dawes, “History Lesson at Eight a.m.” Cathy Song, “The Youngest Daughter” John Keats, “Ode on a Grecian Urn” Alice Jones, “The Lungs” Louis Simpson, “In the Suburbs” A lưu ý on Reading Translations Three Translations of a Poem by Sappho Sappho, “Immortal Aphrodite of the Broidered Throne” (trans. Henry T. Wharton) Sappho, “Beautiful-Throned, Immortal Aphrodite” (trans. Thomas Wentworth Higgins) Sappho, “Pray to lớn My Lady of Paphos” (trans. Mary Barnard) 19. Images Poetry’s Appeal khổng lồ the Senses William Carlos Williams, “Poem” Walt Whitman, “Cavalry Crossing a Ford” David Solway, “Windsurfing” Matthew Arnold, “Dover Beach” Poems for Further Study Adelaide Crapsey, “November Night” Ruth Fainlight, “Crocuses” Mary Robinson, “London’s Summer Morning” William Blake, “London” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Imagery in William Blake’s “London” and Mary Robinson’s “London’s Summer Morning” *Kwame Dawes, “The Habits of Love” Charles Simic, “Fork” Sally Croft, “Home-Baked Bread” *John Keats, “To Autumn” PERSPECTIVE: T. E. Hulme, “On the Differences between Poetry and Prose” trăng tròn. Figures of Speech William Shakespeare, From Macbeth Simile and Metaphor Langston Hughes, “Harlem” *Jane Kenyon, “The Socks” Anne Bradstreet, “The tác giả to her Book” Other Figures Edmund Conti, “Pragmatist” Dylan Thomas, “The H& that Signed the Paper” Janice Townley Moore, “To a Wasp” Tajamãng cầu Kovics, “Text Message” Poems for Further StudyWilliam Carlos Williams, “To Waken an Old Lady” Ernest Slyman, “Lightning Bugs” Martin Espada, “The Mexican Cabdriver’s Poem for his Wife, Who Has Left Him” Judy Page Heitzman, “The Schoolroom on the Second Floor of the Knitting Mill” *Robert Pinsky, “Icicles” Jyên ổn Stevens, “Schizophrenia” Lucille Clifton, “Come Home from the Movies” Kay Ryan, “Learning” Ronald Wallace, “Building an Outhouse” Elaine Magarrell, “The Joy of Cooking” PERSPECTIVE: John R. Searle, “Figuring Out Metaphors” 21. Symbol, Allegory, and Irony Symbol Robert Frost, “Acquainted With the Night” Allegory *James Baldwin, “Guilt, Desire, and Love” Irony Edwin Arlington Robinson, “Richard Cory” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Irony in Edwin Arlington Robinson’s “Richard Cory” Kenneth Fearing, “Ad” e.e. cummings, “Next To Of Course God America I” Stephen Crane, “A Man Said to the Universe” Poems for Further Study *Christina Rossetti, “Goblin Market” *Jane Kenyon, “The Thimble” Kevin Pierce, “Proof of Origin” Carl Sandburg, “A Fence” Julio Marzán, “Ethnic Poetry” Mark Halliday, “Graded Paper” Robert Browning, “My Last Duchess” William Blake, “A Poison Tree” PERSPECTIVE: Ezra Pound, “On Symbols” 22. Sounds Listening to Poetry Anonymous, “Scarborough Fair” John Updike, “Player Piano” Emily Dickinson, “A Bird Came Down the Walk –” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Sound in Emily Dickinson’s “A Bird came down khổng lồ walk—” Rhyme Richard Armour, “Going khổng lồ Extremes” Robert Southey, from “The Cataract of Lodore” PERSPECTIVE: David Lenson, “On the Contemporary Use of Rhyme” Sound và Meaning Gerard Manley Hopkins, “God’s Grandeur” Poems for Further Study Lewis Carroll, “Jabberwocky” William Heyen, “The Trains” *Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “Break, Break, Break” John Donne, “Song” Kay Ryan, “Dew” Andrew Hudgins, “The Ice-Cream Truck” Robert Francis, “The Pitcher” Helen Chasin, “The Word Plum” Richard Wakefield, “The Bell Rope” Jean Toomer, “Unsuspecting” John Keats, “Ode lớn a Nightingale” Howard Nemerov, “Because You Asked About the Line Between Prose và Poetry” *Major Jackson, “Autumn Landscape” 23. Patterns of Rhythm Some Principles of Meter Walt Whitman, from “Song of the xuất hiện Road” William Wordsworth, “My Heart Leaps Up” Suggestions for Scanning a Poem Timothy Steele, “Waiting for the Storm” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Rhythm of Anticipation in Timothy Steele’s “Waiting for the Storm” William Butler Yeats, “That the Night Come” Poems for Further Study Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Mnemonic” John Maloney, “Good!” Alice Jones, “The Foot” A.E. Housman, “When I was One-and-Twenty” Robert Herriông xã, “Delight in Disorder” Ben Jonson, “Still lớn Be Neat” e.e. cummings, “O Sweet Spontaneous” William Blake, “The Lamb” William Blake, “The Tyger” Carl Sandburg, “Chicago” PERSPECTIVE: Louise Bogan, “On Formal Poetry” 24. Poetic Forms Some Common Poetic Forms A.E. Housman, “Loveliest of Trees, the Cherry Now” Robert Herrick, “Upon Julia’s Clothes” Sonnet John Keats, “On First Looking Into Chapman’s Homer” William Wordsworth, “The World Is Too Much With Us” William Shakespeare, “Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day?” William Shakespeare, “My Mistress’ Eyes are Nothing Like the Sun” *Edna St. Vincent Millay, “I Will Put Chaos Into lớn Fourteen Lines” *Mark Jarman, “Unholy Sonnet” R.S. Gwynn, “Shakespearean Sonnet” Villanelle Dylan Thomas, “Do Not Go Gentle Inkhổng lồ That Good Night” Edwin Arlington Robinson, “The House on the Hill” Sestina Algernon Charles Swinburne, “Sestina” Florence Cassen Mayers, “All-American Sestina” *Julia Alvarez, “Bilingual Sestina” Epigram Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “What Is an Epigram?” David McCord, “Epitaph on a Waiter” Paul Laurence Dunbar, “Theology” Limeriông chồng Arthur Henry Reginald Buller, “There was a Young Lady Named Bright” Laurence Perrine, “The Limerick’s Never Averse” Haiku Matsuo Basho, “Under Cherry Trees” Carolyn Kizer, “After Basho” Amy Lowell, “Last Night It Rained” Gary Snyder, “A Dent in a Bucket” Ghazal *Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib, “Ghazal 4” *Patricia Smith, “Hip Hop Ghazal” Elegy Ben Jonson, “On My First Son” *Thomas Gray, “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” *Kate Hanson Foster, “Elegy of Color” Ode Alexander Pope, “Ode on Solitude” Parody Blanche Farley, “The Lover Not Taken” Gwendolyn Brooks, “We Real Cool” Joan Murray, “We Old Dudes” Picture Poem Michael McFee, “In Medias Res” PERSPECTIVE: Elaine Mitchell, “Form” 25. xuất hiện Form Walt Whitman, from “I Sing the Body Electric” PERSPECTIVE: Walt Whitman, “On Rhyme & Meter” A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Power of Walternative text Whitman’s xuất hiện Form Poem “I Sing the Body Electric” David Shumate, “Shooting the Horse” *Reginald Shepherd, “Self Portrait Surviving Spring” *Major Jackson, “The Chase” Michael Ryan, “I” e.e. cummings, “Old Age Sticks” Natasha Trethewey, “On Captivity” Julio Marzán, “The Translator at the Reception for Latin American Writers” Charles Harper Webb, “Descent” Kevin Young, “Eddie Priest’s Barbercửa hàng & Notary” Anonymous, “The Frog” David Hernandez, “All-American” FOUND POEM Donald Justice, “Order in the Streets” Approaches to Poetry 26. Emily Dickinson A Brief Biography An Introduction khổng lồ Her Work Emily Dickinson, “If I can Stop One Heart from Breaking” “If I Shouldn’t Be Alive” “The Thought Beneath So Slight a Film” “To Make a Prairie It Takes a Clover & One Bee” “Success is Counted Sweetest” “Water, is Taught by Thirst” “Papage authority Above!” “Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers” (1859 version) “Safe in Their Alabaster Chambers” (1861 version) “Portraits Are to Daily Faces” “Some Keep the Sabbath Going khổng lồ Church” “I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed” “‘Heaven’ Is What I Cannot Reach” “I Like a Look of Agony” “Wild Nights – Wild Nights!” “The Soul Selects Her Own Society” “Much Madness Is Divinest Sense” “I Dwell In Possibility” “I Heard a Fly Buzz – When I Died” “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” “The Bustle in the House” “Tell All the Truth But Tell It Slant” “Oh Sumptuous Moment” “A Route of Evanescence” “From All the Jails the Boys and Girls” PERSPECTIVES ON EMILY DICKINSON Emily Dickinson, “A Description of Herself” Thomas Wentworth Higgonson, “On Meeting Dickinson for the First Time” Mabel Loomis Todd, “The Character of Amherst” Richard Wilbur, On Dickinson’s Sense of Privation” Sandra M. Gilbert và Susan Gubar, “On Dickinson’s White Dress” Paula Bennett, “On ‘I heard a Fly buzz—when I died—’” Martha Nell Smith, “On ‘Because I could not stop for Death’” A Sample In-Depth Study Emily Dickinson, “‘Faith’ is a fine invention” “I know that He exists” “I never saw a Moor” “Apparently with no surprise” A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: Religious Faith in Four Poems by Emily Dickinson SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR LONGER PAPERS 27. Robert Frost A Brief Biography An Introduction to lớn His Work Robert Frost, “The Road Not Taken” “The Pasture” “Mowing” “Mending Wall” “Birches” “Out, Out” “Fire and Ice” “Dust of Snow” “Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening” “The Need of Being Versed in Country Things” “Nothing Gold Can Stay” “Once by the Pacific” “Neither Out Far Nor In Deep” “Design” *“Desert Places” “The Gift Outright” PERSPECTIVES ON ROBERT FROST Robert Frost, “‘In White’: An Early Version of ‘Design’” Robert Frost, “On Living Part of a Poem” Amy Lowell, “On Frost’s Realistic Technique” Herbert R. Coursen Jr. “A Parodic Interpretation of ‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening’” SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR LONGER PAPERS 28. A Study of Billy Collins: The tác giả Reflects on Five Poems A Brief Biography and Introduction to His Work Billy Collins, “How Do Poems Travel?” (Introduction) Billy Collins, “Osso Buco” (Poem) Billy Collins, “On Writing ‘Osso Buco’” (Essay) Billy Collins, “Nostalgia” (Poem) Billy Collins, “On Writing ‘Nostalgia’” (Essay) Billy Collins, “Questions About Angels” (Poem) Billy Collins, “On Writing ‘Questions About Angels’” (Essay) Billy Collins, “Litany” (Poem) Billy Collins, “On Writing ‘Litany’” (Essay) Billy Collins, “Building With Its Face Blown Off” (Poem) PERSPECTIVE: Billy Collins, “On ‘Building with Its Face Blown Off’: Michael Meyer Interviews Billy Collins” FACSIMILES: Billy Collins, Three Draft Manuscript Pages 29. A Study of Julia Alvarez: The tác giả Reflects on Five Poems A Brief Biography và Introduction lớn Her Work Julia Alvarez, “Queens, 1963” (Poem) Julia Alvarez, “On Writing ‘Queens, 1963’” (Essay) Julia Alvarez, “Housekeeping Cages” (Poem) Julia Alvarez, “On Writing ‘Housekeeping Cages’ & Her Housekeeping Poems” (Essay) Julia Alvarez, “Dusting” (Poem) Julia Alvarez, “On Writing ‘Dusting’” (Essay) Julia Alvarez, “Ironing Their Clothes” (Poem) Julia Alvarez, “On Writing ‘Ironing Their Clothes’” (Essay) Julia Alvarez, “Sometimes the Words Are So Close” (Poem) Julia Alvarez, “On Writing ‘Sometimes the Words Are So Close’” (Essay) FACSIMILES: Julia Alvarez, Four Manuscript Pages: “Sometimes the Words Are So Close” PERSPECTIVES: Marny Requa, “From an Interview with Julia Alvarez” Kelli Lyon Johnson, “Mapping an Identity” 30. A Cultural Case Study: The Harlem Renaissance Claude McKay “The Harlem Dancer” “If We Must Die” “The Tropics in New York” “The Lynching” “America” “The White City” “The Barrier” Georgia Douglas Johnson “Youth” “Foredoom” “Calling Dreams” “Lost Illusions” “Fusion” “Prejudice” Langston Hughes “The Negro Speaks of Rivers” “Jazzonia” *“The Weary Blues” “Lenox Avenue: Midnight” “Ballad of the Landlord” Countee Cullen “Yet Do I Marvel” “Incident” *“Heritage” PERSPECTIVES Karen Jackson Ford, “Hughes’s Aesthetics of Simplicity” David Chinitz, “The Romanticization of Africa in the 1920s” Alain Locke, “Review of Georgia Douglas Johnson’s Bronze: A Book of Verse” Countee Cullen, “On Racial Poetry” Onwuchekwa Jemie, “On Universal Poetry” SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR LONGER PAPERS Poetry & the Visual Arts Grant Wood, “American Gothic” (Painting) John Stone, “American Gothic” (Poem) Kiagawa Utamaro, “Girl Powdering Her Neck” (Woodbloông chồng Print) Cathy Song, “Girl Powdering Her Neck” (Poem) Maya Lin, “The Vietphái nam Veteran’s Memorial” (Sculpture) Yusef Komunyakaa, “Facing It” (Poem) Pieter Brueghel The Elder, “Two Chained Monkeys” (Painting) Wislawa Szymborska, “Brueghel’s Two Monkeys” (Poem) Edward Hopper, “House by the Railroad” (Painting) Edward Hirsch, “Edward Hopper and the House by the Railroad” (Poem) Vermeer, “The Milkmaid” (Painting) Wislawa Szymborska, “Vermeer” (Poem) 31. A Case Study: Song Lyrics as Poetry *Anonymous, “Lord Randal” *Frederic Weatherly, “Danny Boy” *W.C. Handy, “Beale Street Blues” *Woody Guthrie, “Gypsy Davy” *Hank Williams, “I’m So Lonesome I Could Cry” *Bob Dylan, “A Hard Rain’s A-Gonna Fall” *Bob Dylan, “It’s Alright, Ma (I’m Only Bleeding)” *John Lennon và Paul McCartney, “I Am the Walrus” *Van Morrison, “Astral Weeks” *Joni Mitchell, “Cold Blue Steel và Sweet Fire” *Bruce Springsteen, “You’re Missing” *Tom Waits, “Alice” *Janelle Monae, “Americans” 32. A Thematic Case Study: The Natural World *J. Estanislao Lopez, “Meditation on Beauty” Jane Hirschfield, “Optimism” Wendell Berry, “The Peace of Wild Things” Gail White, “Dead Armadillos” Dave sầu Lucas, “November” Walt McDonald, “Coming Across It” *Edna St. Vincent Millay, “Spring” Alden Nowlan, “The Bull Moose” Kay Ryan, “Turtle” *Allen Ginsburg, “Sunflower Sutra” Mary Oliver, “Wild Geese” *Sylvia Plath, “Pheasant” SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR LONGER PAPERS 33. A Thematic Case Study: The World of Work Jan Beatty, “My Father Teaches Me lớn Dream” Michael Chitwood, “Men Throwing Bricks” *Walternative text Whitman, “I Hear America Singing” *Langston Hughes, “I, Too” *Pedro Pietri, “Puerkhổng lồ Rican Obituary” *Theodore Roethke, “Dolor” Marge Piercy, “To Be of Use” *Seamus Heaney, “Digging” *Rita Dove, “Daystar” SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR LONGER PAPERS 34. An Anthology of Poems *Margaret Atwood, “Owl Song” W.H. Auden, “The Unknown Citizen” *Charles Baudelaire, “A Carrion” Aphra Behn, “Song: Love Armed” William Blake, “Infant Sorrow” *William Blake, “The Mental Traveller” Anne Bradstreet, “Before the Birth of One of Her Children” *Emily Brontë, “Stars” Elizabeth Barrett Browning, “How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways” *Michelle Cliff, “The L& of Look Behind” Samuel Taylor Coleridge, “Kubla Khan: Or, A Vision in a Dream” *Gregory Corso, “Marriage” *Bei Dao, “Notes from the City of the Sun” John Donne, “Batter My Heart” *John Donne, “The Flea” Paul Laurence Dunbar, “Sympathy” T.S. Eliot, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” *T.S. Eliot, “The Hollow Men” *Lawrence Ferlinghetti, “Constantly Risking Absurdity” *Louise Glüông xã, “Celestial Music” *Seamus Heaney, “Personal Helicon” *Gerard Manley Hopkins, “Pied Beauty” *Brionne Janae, “Alternative sầu Facts” Ben Jonson, “To Celia” John Keats, “When I Have sầu Fears That I May Cease to Be” John Keats, “Bright Star, Would I Were Steadfast as Thou Art” *Philip Larkin, “Sad Steps” Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus” Louisa Lopez, “Junior Year Abroad” *Audre Lorde, “Learning to lớn Write” *Robert Lowell, “Skunk Hour” John Milton, “When I Consider How My Light Is Spent” *Naomi Shihab Nye, “To Manage” *Edgar Allan Poe, “Annabelle Lee” *Adelia Prado, “Denouement” Edwin Arlington Robinson, “Miniver Cheevy” William Shakespeare, “Let Me Not To the Marriage of True Minds” William Shakespeare, “When, In Disgrace With Fortune & Men’s Eyes” Percy Bysshe Shelley, “Ozymandias” *Stevie Smith, “Not Waving But Drowning” Patricia Smith, “What It’s Like To Be a Blaông xã Girl (For Those of You Who Aren’t)” *Tracy K. Smith, “Self Portrait as the Letter Y” *Wallace Stevens, “Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird” Jonathan Swift, “A Description of the Morning” Alfred, Lord Tennyson, “Ulysses” *Natasha Trethewey, “Incident” *Phillis Wheatley, “To S.M., a young African Painter, on seeing his Works” Walt Whitman, “When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer” *William Wordsworth, “I wandered lonely as a cloud” William Wordsworth, “The Solitary Reaper” William Butler Yeats, “Ledomain authority and the Swan” William Butler Yeats, “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” Drama The Study of Drama 35. Reading Drama Reading Drama Responsively Susan Glaspell, Trifles A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of Trifles PERSPECTIVE: Susan Glaspell, “From the Short Story Version of Trifles” Elements of Drama *Lynn Nottage, “POOF!” 36. A Study of Sophocles Theatrical Conventions of Greek Drama Tragedy Sophocles, Oedipus the King (trans. by David Grene) PERSPECTIVES ON SOPHOCLES Aristotle, “On Tragic Character” Sigmund Freud, “On the Oedipus Complex” Muriel Rukeyser, “On Oedipus the King” David Wiles, “On Oedipus the King as a Political Play” 37. A Study of William Shakespeare Shakespeare’s Theater The Range of Shakespeare’s Drama: History, Comedy, & TragedyA Note on Reading Shakespeare William Shakespeare, Othello, the Moor of Venice PERSPECTIVES ON SHAKESPEARE The Mayor of London (1597), “Objections to lớn the Elizabethan Theater” Lisa Jardine, “On Boy Actors in Female Roles” Samuel Johnson, “On Shakespeare’s Characters” Jane Adamson, “On Desdemona’s Role in Othello” David Bevington, “On Othello’s Heroic Struggle” James Kincaid, “On the Value of Comedy in the Face of Tragedy” SUGGESTED TOPICS FOR LONGER PAPERS 38. Modern Drama Realism and Naturalism Experimental Drama Theatrical Conventions of Modern Drama *Osoto Wilde, The Importance of Being Earnest39. A Critical Case Study: Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House (trans. R. Farquharson Sharp) PERSPECTIVES: Ibsen, “Notes for A Doll’s House” — “A Nineteenth-Century Husband’s Letter to his Wife” Barry Witđê mê and John Lutterbie, “A Marxist Approach to A Doll’s House” Carol Strongin Tufts, “A Psychoanalytic Reading of A Doll’s House” Joan Templeton, “Is A Doll’s House a Feminist Text?” Questions for Writing: Applying a Critical Strategy A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: On the Other Side of the Slammed Door in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House 40. Contemporary Drama *David Auburn, Proof Beyond Realism The Avant-Garde Theater of the Absurd Theater of Cruelty Musical Theater 41. A Collection of Contemporary Plays *Harold Pinter, The Birthday Party *Paula Vogel, How I Learned lớn Drive August Wilson, Fences PERSPECTIVE: David Savran, “An Interview with August Wilson” Strategies for Reading & Writing 42. Critical Strategies for Reading Critical Thinking Formacác mục StrategiesBiographical StrategiesPsychological StrategiesHistorical StrategiesMarxist CriticismNew Historicist CriticismCultural CriticismGender StrategiesFeminist CriticismLGBTQ+ CriticismMythological StrategiesReader-Response StrategiesDeconstructionist Strategies43. Writing about Literature Why Am I Being Asked lớn Do This?From Reading and Discussion lớn WritingPrewritingAnnotating the Text and Journal Note Taking Choosing a Topic More Focused PrewritingArguing about Literature WritingWriting a Draft Textual Evidence: Using Quotations, Summarizing, và ParaphrasingWriting the Introduction và ConclusionRevising và Editing Questions for Writing: A Revision ChecklistTypes of Writing AssignmentsExplicationA SAMPLE STUDENT EXPLICATION: A Reading of Emily Dickinson’s “There’s a certain Slant of light”AnalysisA SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Memory in Elizabeth Bishop’s “Manners”Comparison and ContrastA SAMPLE STUDENT COMPARISON: The Struggle for Women’s Self-Definition in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House và James Joyce’s “Eveline”Writing about Fiction, Poetry, And DramaWriting about FictionQuestions for Responsive sầu Reading and Writing about FictionA SAMPLE STUDENT ESSAY: John Updike’s A & P as a State of MindWriting about PoetryQuestions for Responsive sầu Reading và Writing about PoetryThe Elements TogetherJohn Donne, Death Be Not ProudA SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of “Death Be Not Proud”A Sample First ResponseOrganizing Your ThoughtsA Sample Informal OutlineThe Elements và ThemeA SAMPLE EXPLICATION: The Use of Conventional Metaphors for Death in John Donne’s “Death Be Not Proud”Writing about Drama Questions for Responsive sầu Reading và Writing about DramaA SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: The Feminist Evidence in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles44. The Literary Research Paper Choosing a Topic Finding Sources Evaluating Sources and Taking Notes Developing a Thesis và Organizing the Paper Revising Documenting Sources and Avoiding PlagiarismThe List of  Works CitedParenthetical References A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: How William Faulkner’s Narrator Cultivates a Rose for Emily 

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